Intelligence is basically, “the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, critical thinking, and problem-solving” according to Wikipedia. In another sense, the ability to perceive or infer information and not just that, but also retain that information as knowledge to be applied is intelligence. The application is measured with instances that fall under adaptive behaviors within an environment or context. As much as intelligence has also been observed in both non-human animals and in plants, it is most often studied in humans.
According to Albert Einstein, "The true sign of intelligence is not knowledge but imagination." Socrates said, "I know that I am intelligent because I know that I know nothing." Determining the true measure of intelligence had been really tasking for philosophers over centuries, the struggle to pinpoint what it really was. This has continued till even recent times; a debate has started between neuroscientists searching for answers about intelligence from a scientific perspective, they had these questions such as these: What enables some brains to be smarter than others? Is better storing and retrieving of memories an indicator of intelligent people? Or perhaps there are more connections between neurons that allow them to creatively combine dissimilar ideas? Does the firing of microscopic neurons really lead to the sparks of inspiration behind the atomic bomb? Or lead to Isaac Newton’s smartness?
Measuring or testing intelligence
First, the verb ‘gauge’ means to estimate or measure while the noun gauge is a tool you can use to make such a measurement. The instrument used to check the air pressure in a car tire is called a tire gauge. Another meaning of gauge is the thickness, or diameter, of an item like wire (or the barrel of a gun). So on to the topic at hand, gauging intelligence is find the measures used to ascertain its existence. It may not be enough to just know what intelligence means without knowing how to identify it in a person or situation. There are no uniform opinions on how this is supposed to be done but everyone, in the end, determines which way works for them.
My first knowledge of what intelligence is, came from the idea of IQ (Intelligence Quotient). They would tell us kids at the time that pupils with high IQs usually end up taking a top academic position in class and most likely do well in competitions and the likes. I always wanted to be intelligent from then on, whether I could fully explain what it meant or not didn’t matter, I just wanted to seamlessly exhibit it. The definition of intelligence is controversially borne from the fact that Some Groups of psychologists have suggested their different definitions.
Three major theories on intelligence were produced in the 20th century.
There has been so much contention over time as to what intelligence is and how to gauge it. In regard to that three major theories on intelligence were propounded in the 20th century. Charles Spearman proposed the first theory in 1904. In it he acknowledged that the different types of intelligence exist but are all correlated. He added that a person’s ability to do well on some sections of an IQ test, most likely reflects that they will do well on all other and this ideology works the other way around as well. The contention continued with Spearman’s general intelligence factor called termed "g," being that most people had conflicting opinions on it.
A Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner revised Spearman’s notion after some decades. He came up with this second one, Theory of Multiple Intelligences, which set forth eight distinct types of intelligence and in which he claimed that there need be no correlation among them. He defended it with an insinuation that “a person could possess strong emotional intelligence without being gifted analytically.” This certainly is a strong point of view that seems most likely to be true, but then again a third theory emerged.
Robert Sternberg, the former dean of Tufts aired his own theory much later in 1985. He put the third theory forward; a Triarchic Theory of Intelligence that was in opposition to the two prior definitions. He expressed that those were based solely on intelligences that can be assessed in IQ test making them too rigid or narrow. His stand on the belief that the types of intelligence are broken down into three subsets: analytic, creative, and practical.
In order not to delve into so much psychology theories or scientific definitions lets briefly highlight some simple expressions of what intelligence is.
However one chooses to determine intelligence is their choice to make, but the following points are notable. To measure intelligence, consider much more than the mere ability to understand quantum physics or solve a differential equation. Emotional, mental or all round Intelligence can be gauged on one’s objective use of the mind in any given situation and knowing the right process and steps necessary to solve a problem suggests intelligence. This applies both to the interactions in regard to the academic world and the society. Conclusively, when one’s brain does not react instinctively in all situations but acts in the appropriate vein, one is exhibiting intelligence.
The guidelines should have in one way or another given a clearer picture of how we can gauge intelligence.
Credits- Nate Masterson, Cody Swann, Aaron Levy, Max Miller
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